Monday, March 11, 2019

Liquid metal turns to Plasma!


Most people are familiar with the three states of matter: solids, liquids, and gases. But other 

forms exist, too. Plasmas, for example, are the most abundant form of matter in the universe, found 

throughout our solar system in the sun and other planetary bodies.
Scientists are still working to understand the fundamentals of this state of matter, which is turning 

out to be more and more significant, not only in explaining how the universe works but also in 

harnessing material for alternative forms of energy.

WHAT IS A PLASMA?

Plasmas consist of a hot soup of free moving electrons and ions—atoms that have lost their electrons

—that easily conducts electricity. Although plasmas are not common naturally on Earth, they 

comprise most of the matter in the observable universe, such as the surface of the sun.


Scientists can generate artificial plasmas here on Earth, typically by heating a gas to thousands of 

degrees Fahrenheit, which strips the atoms of their electrons. On a smaller scale, this is the same 

process that allows plasma TVs and neon signs to “glow:” electricity excites the atoms of a neon gas, 

causing neon to enter a plasma state and emit photons of light.


A LOT OF HEAT

As Mohamed Zaghoo, a research associate at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser 

Energetics (LLE), and his colleagues observed, however, there is another way to create a plasma: 

under high density conditions, heating a liquid metal to very high temperatures will also produce a 

dense plasma. “The transition to the latter has not been observed scientifically before and is precisely 

what we did,” Zaghoo says.



One of the unique aspects of this observation is that liquid metals at high densities exhibit quantum 

properties; however, if they are allowed to cross over to the plasma state at high densities, they will 

exhibit classical properties.


In the 1920s, Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac, two of the founders of quantum mechanics, introduced the 

statistical formulation that describes the behavior of matter made out of electrons, neutrons, and 

protons—normal matter that makes up the objects of Earth. Fermi and Dirac hypothesized that at 

certain conditions—extremely high densities or extremely low temperatures—electrons or protons 

have to assume certain quantum properties classical physics doesn’t describe. A plasma, however, 

does not follow this paradigm.


In order to observe a liquid metal crossing over to a plasma, the researchers started off with the liquid 

metal deuterium, which displayed the classical properties of a liquid. To increase the density of the 

deuterium, they cooled it to 21 degrees Kelvin (-422 degrees Fahrenheit).


The researchers then used the LLE’s OMEGA lasers to set off a strong shockwave through the 

ultracool liquid deuterium. The shockwave compressed the deuterium to pressures up to five million 

times greater than atmospheric pressure, while also increasing its temperatures to almost 180,000 

degrees Fahrenheit. The sample started off completely transparent, but as the pressure rose, it 

transformed into a shiny metal with high optical reflectivity.“By monitoring the reflectance of the 

sample as a function of its temperature, we were able to observe the precise conditions where this 

simple lustrous liquid metal transformed into a dense plasma,” Zaghoo says.


FROM QUANTUM TO CLASSICAL
The researchers observed that the liquid metal initially exhibited the quantum properties of electrons that would be expected at extreme temperatures and densities.However, “at about 90,000 degrees Fahrenheit, the reflectance of the metallic deuterium started rising with a slope that is expected if the electrons in the system are no longer quantum but classical,” Zaghoo says. “This means that the metal had become a plasma.”
In other words, the researchers started off with a simple liquid. Increasing the density to extreme conditions made the liquid enter a state where it exhibited quantum properties. Raising the temperature even further made it turn into a plasma, at which point it exhibited classical properties, yet was still under high-density conditions, says coauthor Suxing Hu, a senior scientist at LLE.
“What is remarkable is that the conditions at which this crossover between quantum and classical occurs is different from what most people expected based on plasma textbooks. Furthermore, this behavior could be universal to all other metals.”
Understanding these fundamentals of liquids and plasmas allows researchers to develop new models to describe how materials at high densities conduct electricity and heat, and can help explain matter in the extremes of the solar system, as well as help in attaining fusion energy, Zaghoo says.
“This work is not just a laboratory curiosity. Plasmas comprise the vast interiors of astrophysical bodies like brown dwarfs and also represent the states of matter needed to achieve thermonuclear fusion. These models are essential in our understanding of how to better design experiments to achieve fusion.”
The US Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Administration supported the work.For more updates, visit Plasma Physics Conferences and be a part of the Conference at Hong Kong | Sep 25-26, 2019.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

PLASMAPHYSICS ASIAPACIFIC 2019

About Conference


Its our pleasure to welcome you all to the ‘Plasma Physics Asiapacific 2019’ The conference adopts a timely theme “Expanding Innovative Possibilities for a better Tomorrow’’.

This conference aims to bring together the prominent researcher’s academic scientists, and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences in every allied concept of Atomic, Nuclear and Plasma Physics. The Committee is looking forward to organizing an exceptional meeting with new, interesting sessions & discussion and to meet new people where you can share your subject and passion.

The conference on Atomic, Nuclear and Plasma Physics will focus on many interesting and knowledge empowering & enhancing scientific sessions and covers all frontier topics & concepts in Physics.

Conference highlights on:


  • Atomic Physics
  • Nuclear Physics
  • Plasma Physics
  • Molecular Physics
  • Optical Physics
  • Cosmology
  • Particle Physics
  • Quantum Mechanics
  • Relativity


Conference Highlights

Wednesday, October 3, 2018

Together Towards Tomorrow - Let's bring our Ideas together !

Lets take a step Together Towards Tomorrow | Make the Future better.If you've got some amazing stuff, bring it out boldly and let the world know your ideas on how we can give a brilliant future to our planet, lets bring out the smart and innovative ideas. Never miss an opportunity to bring out whats on your mind, you'll never know that little idea could bring the greatest difference in the future of mankind. So here's us providing you an opportunity to bring out your voice, come join us and be a part of the Conference.
We believe that this Conference will give you an amazing experience and we consider this is important, as researchers, professors, scholars, scientists, budding students from all around the world belonging to one field come together and know each other's ideas and discuss on how we can make our future better, cause its always the team work that brings out the best.
Conference Series invites participants from all over the world to take part in the upcoming International Conference on Atomic, Nuclear and Plasma Physics 2018, Sydney, Australia.What do we have at the Conference & What's your participation?
#Oral Talks #Poster Presentations #Workshops #Keynote Speakers #Delegate Participation #Exhibition #Collaboration #Sponsorship #Media partners

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Thursday, May 17, 2018

PLASMA PHYSICS ASIAPACIFIC 2018

About Conference


Its our pleasure to welcome you all to the ‘Plasma Physics 2018’ The conference adopts a timely theme “Together Towards Tomorrow. Discover, Invent, Educate in the plasmic realm of Physics’’.

This conference aims to bring together the prominent researcher’s academic scientists, and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences in each and every allied concept of Plasma Physics. The Committee is looking forward to organizing an exceptional meeting with new and interesting sessions and discussion and to meet new people where you can share your subject and passion.

The conference on plasma physics will focus on many interesting and knowledge empowering & enhancing scientific sessions and covers all frontier topics & concepts in Plasma Physics.

Importance:

Physics touches every aspect of our lives. It involves the study of matter, energy and their interactions. As such, it is one area of science that cuts across all other subjects. Other sciences are reliant on the concepts and techniques developed through physics.

Plasma Physics is the study of a state of matter comprising charged particles. Plasma can only be artificially generated by heating or subjecting a neutral gas to a strong electromagnetic field to the point an ionized gaseous substance becomes increasingly electrically conductive, and long-range electromagnetic fields dominate the behavior of the matter.

This is so called Ionization can also be achieved using high power laser light or microwaves. plasmas are found naturally in stars and in space.

Conference Highlights